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Filtreler nedir? Ne işe yarar? Çeşitleri ve Çapları nelerdir? Filtre Faktörü nedir?

2015-03-26_125958Filtreler nedir? Ne işe yarar?

Çeşitleri ve Çapları nelerdir?

Filtre Faktörü nedir?

 

 

Filtreler

Filtre: Siyah-beyaz filmlerde renk tonu farklılıklarını ortadan kaldırmak, ayrıntıları koruyarak kontrastı değiştirmek, renkli filmlerde ise değişik renk sıcaklıklarında kullanılmak üzere ve tüm filmlerde kimi özel etkileri elde etmek için kullanılan çeşitli nitelikteki jelatin veya camdan yapılmış, saydam veya yarı-saydam malzemelere denir.

Her filtre kendi rengini geçirir, diğer renkleri dışarıda bırakır. Metal montür ile monte edilen filtreler ve taşıyıcı (holder) ile monte edilen filtreler olarak iki yönde sınıflandırılırlar.

Koruyucu Filtreler: Kendi özelliklerine rağmen objektifi korumak için kullanılan filtrelerdir (U.V. ve Skylight filtre).

Siyah-Beyaz’da Kullanılan Filtreler: Kontrast düşürmek veya yükseltmek amacıyla kullanılan filtrelerdir. Kontrast düşürmek ara tonların ve detayların fazlalaşması; yükseltmek ise ara tonların ve detayların azaltılması anlamına gelir. Çeşitli renkteki filtrelerdir ve her birinin spesifik olarak farklı özellikleri de mevcuttur.

Polarizasyon Filtresi: Yansımaları yok etmek ve parlamaları minimize etmek için kullanılır. Aynı zamanda bir stop saturasyon (doygunluk) verir.

2015-03-26_130044

Close Up Filtresi: Makro lens etkisi yaratmak için kullanılan, genellikle 4 adet olarak satılan yakınlaştırma filtreleridir.

Close Up Filtresi
Close Up Filtresi

Diffuser Filtre: Çekilecek objenin keskinliğini azaltan ve hatlarını yumuşatan bir filtredir.

Diffuser Filtre Foto
Diffuser Filtre Foto

 

Diffuser Filtre Lens
Diffuser Filtre Lens

Gradasyon Filtresi: Özellikle manzara çekimlerinde kullanılan bir filtredir. Gökyüzünü farklı renklerde almak için kullanılır.

Gradasyon Filtresi Foto
Gradasyon Filtresi Foto

Merkezi Spot Filtresi: Özellikle portre çekimlerine kullanılan ve tam ortayı net, gerisini flu yapan bir filtredir.

Merkezi Spot Filtresi
Merkezi Spot Filtresi

Pastel Filtre: Renk tonlarının doygunluğunu artıran bir filtredir.

Yıldız Filtresi: Fotoğraf karesi içinde yer alan çeşitli ışık kaynaklarını, görsel olarak göze daha hoş göstermek için kullanılır. Üzerindeki değer kadar ışığı parçalayarak uzantılara böler.

Filtre Faktörü: Tüm filtreler, içlerinden geçen ışığın bir kısmını yutarlar. Bu surette filtrelerin kullanımlarında, hesaplanmış poz süresini bir miktar artırmak gerekir. Artırmanın ne miktarda olacağını filtre faktörü belirler.

x2 / +1 (Pozlandırmanın bir stop fazla olması gerektiğini belirtir).
x4 / +2 (Pozlandırmanın iki stop fazla olması gerektiğini belirtir).
x8 / +3 (Pozlandırmanın üç stop fazla olması gerektiğini belirtir).

Örnek: 125 / 8 ışık değeri beren bir kompozisyonda x2 / +1 filtre faktörlü bir filtre kullanıldığında poz değerini ya 125 / 5,6 değere, ya da 60 / 8’ değere çekilmesi lazım.

Filtre Çapları: 46 mm, 49 mm, 52 mm, 55 mm, 58 mm, 62 mm, 67 mm, 72 mm, 77 mm, 82 mm, 86 mm, 95 mm, 105 mm

   

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