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İstiridyeler ve inci üretimi

10-01-2016_122436Romalılar ve Çiniler istiridyeye çok düşkündüler. O zamanlar kabuğu kalın ve katmerli, çapı 15 santimetreyi bulan istiridyeler yeniliyordu.Doğal istiridye yatakları uzun süre ihtiyacı karşılamaya yetti.Ancak XIX yy. den itibaren istiridye yetiştirilmeğe başlandı. Bunun için önceden hazırlanmış tuğlalara kurtçuklar (larvalar) toplanır, özel yetiştirme yerlerine bırakılır, onlarda orda büyüyüp gelişir.

Yassı istiridyelerden başka en çok yetiştirilen istiridye türü, kavkısı çizgili Portekiz istiridyesidir. Bir salgın hastalık Portekiz istiridyesinin üreme alanlarını mahvedince, batıda, Japon istiridyeleri yetiştirilmeye başlandı.

1782 tarihli resmi bir belgede anlaşıldığına göre, Osmanlı döneminde Türkiye’de gelişmiş istiridye ve midye taraftarları vardı ve bu taraftarlarda üretim devletçe düzenlenirdi. Gene aynı belge bu ürünlerin yabancı ülkelere satış ve gönderilme koşullarını da kurallara bağlamaktadır.

İstiridyecilik çok bakım gerektiren bir iştir. Hem suların temizliğine özen göstermek, hem de istiridyelerin sayısız düşmanlarından korumak gereklidir.Korunmazlarsa balıklar istiridye kurtçuklarını, deniz yıldızları ve diğer yumuşakçalar da erişkin istiridyeleri yer, tüketir.

İstiridye üretimi bütün yıl yapılabilir. Bununla birlikte hiç olmazsa avlanma bölgeleri dışında mayıstan eylüle kadar istiridye yemekten kaçınmak uygun olur. Çünkü istiridyeler bu mevsimde çoğalır; ayrıca bu dönemde istiridye yemek zararlıda olabilir.

Uzakdoğu’da, zarif inciler elde etmek için istiridye yetiştirilirdi. Değerli inciler, Büyük Okyanus’un ve Hint Okyanusu’nun ılık sularında yaşayan istiridyeler (meleagrinler) tarafından üretilir. Bir kum tanesi­ne, bir larvanın veya herhangi bir yabancı maddenin istiridyenin içi­ne girmesiyle oluşur. Bu küçücük madde istiridyeyi incittiğinden, isti­ridye, kendini korumak için sedef bırakır. Bu sedef yavaş yavaş küre biçiminde katmanlar halinde birikip inci meydana getirir.

İncinin özellikleri, biçiminden, renginden, parıltısından ve ağırlığından gelir. Bir inci yusyuvarlak, armut biçimi veya düzensiz (barok) olabilir. Rengi, beyazdan siya­ha kadar sonsuz nüanslar gösterir. En çok arananı pembemsi beyaz olanıdır. Parıltısı, yani inci suyu, ona kişiliğini verir. Kırat olarak ifade edi­len ağırlığı ise, değerinin önemli bir öğesidir.

1893’te Japon Mikimoto, yapay ola­rak inci üretmeye imkân veren bir yöntem buldu. Bunda, istiridye tarlalarındaki istiridyelerin içine bir se­def parçacığı ve başka bir canlı isti­ridyeden alınmış bir örtü (yumuşak­çanın iki çeneti arasında yer alan zar) sokuluyordu. Bu, kültür İncisi’nin çe­kirdeği oluyor, istiridye bu çekirdeğin üstüne sedef salgılıyordu. Bugün dünyada kültür incirlerinin yüzde 90’ı  Japonya’da  üretilmektedir.

   

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