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Istakoz Türleri Hakkında Bilgiler ve Türkiye’de Yaşayan Istakozlar

14-10-2015_210208Istakozlar tatlı ve tuzlu sularda yaşayan,diplerde dolaşan ve genellikle geceleri etkinlik gösteren su omurgasızlarıdır.Denizde yaşayanlar başta balık olmak üzere,ölü ve canlı hayvanların yanı sıra çeşitli algleri yerler.Tatlı su ıstakozları ise salyangozlar,solucanlar,böcek larvaları ve iribaşlar ile beslenir.Bazı ıstakoz türlerinin ticari değerleri yüksektir.

Istakozun sert ve bölütlü bir kabuğu vardır.Beş çift ayağı,hareketli saplar üstünde gözleri,iki uzun duyargası bulunur.Ayaklarının genellikle ilk çifti,bazen tümü kıskaçlıdır.Kıskaçlar çoğu kez farklı irilikte olmalarıyla dikkat çeker.Uzamış karın bölütlerinde birçok küçük yüzme ayağı bulunur.Yelpaze biçimli kuyrukları yüzmeye yarar.Ayrıca kuyruk ve karınlarını bükerek kendilerini geriye doğru itebilirler.

Istakozların, Homaridae (gerçek ıstakozlar),Palinuridae (zırhlı ıstakozlar),Scyllridae (ayı ıstakozları) ve Polychelidae (derin deniz ıstakozları ) familyaları denizde yaşarlar.Tatlı sularda yaşayan türleri ise Astacidae ve Parastacidae  ya da Austroastaracidae familyasıdır.

Homaridae (gerçek ıstakozlar) kutup denizleri ve derin suların dışında geniş bir dağılım gösterir.Ayaklarının ilk üç çifti kıskaçlı ve öndeki kıskaç  çifti çok iridir.Baş ve göğüs bölümlerini örten kabuğun ön ucu yada alın uzantısı oldukça gelişmiştir.Bu türün,Amerika ıstakozu,Bayağı ıstakoz,Norveç ıstakozu en değerlisidir.Pazarlarda genellikle canlı satılan bu türlerin kaslı karın bölümleri ve kıskaçları yenir.

Bayağı ıstakoz Akdeniz’de ve Atlas Okyanusunun Avrupa kıyılarında sığ ve taşlık yerlerinde yaşarlar.Rengi yeşile çalan koyu lacivert renginde,uzunluğu 30-45 cm dir.Türkiye’yi çevreleyen bütün denizlerde  bulunmakla beraber artan kirlilik Marmara Denizindeki sayılarını çok azaltmıştır.Tuzluluk oranı yüksek Karadeniz’de seyrek olarak bulunur.

Amerika ıstakozu Labrador ile Kuzey Coralina arasında sığ kıyılarda ve özellikle 350 metreye kadar ulaşan derinliklerde yaşar.Sığ yerlerde yaklaşık 25 cm uzunluğunda ve 0.45 kg ağırlığında olan bu ıstakozların derinlerde 20 kg ye kadar ulaşan örneklerine rastlanır.Sırtları siyahımsı yeşil ya da kahverengimsi yeşil,altları turuncu kırmızı ya da mavidir.Gerçek ıstakozların dişleri yaklaşık beş yılda olgunlaşır.Bir dişi 3000 ya da daha çok sayıda yumurtlar.Bazıları 50 yıl yaşayabilirler.

Palinuridae türüne zırhlı ıstakoz adı dikenli ve kalın kabuklarından ötürü verilmiştir.Bu ıstakozların iri kıskaçları olmadığından genellikle yalnız karın bölümleri yenilebilir.Duyargalarıysa çok gelişmiştir.Zırhlı ıstakoz türlerinin çoğu tropik denizlerde yaşarlar.Öbürleri arasında Türkiye’de yaşayan ve böcek adıyla tanınan Palinurus vulgaris ,30-40 cm dolayındaki vücut uzunluğunu aşan büyük duyargalarıyla ayırt edilebilirler.

Scyllridae (ayı ıstakozları) türleri de özellikle tropik bölgelerde yaygındır.Oldukça yassı ve kıskaçsız olan bu ıstakozların yassılaşmış duyargaları geniş birer pul biçimindedir.Türkiyenin Akdeniz kıyılarında bulunan ve yerel olarak böcek ya da karavida adlarıyla tanınan iki türünden Scyllarrus arctus 8-10 cm, Scyllarrus latus 40-45 cm uzunluğundadır.Yumuşak ve oldukça zayıf yapılı ve kıskaçlı olan bu ıstakozların görme duyuları körelmiş ya da tamamen göremezler.

Tatlı su ıstakozları denizde yaşayan akrabalarına göre ince kabukları ve genellikle daha küçük olmalarıyla ayırt eldirler.Ortalama uzunlukları 7 cm dolayındadırlar.Bunların ömürleri türlerine  göre 1-20 yıl arasında değişebilirler.

Avrupa’da ve Asya’nın batı kesimlerinde tatlı sularda görülen en yaygın ıstakoz Astacus türüdür.Ticari değeri çok yüksek olan bu ıstakozlardan A.leptodactylus (Kerevit) Türkiye’nin su ürünleri ihracatında önemli bir yer tutar.

Istakozlar, izmarit ve istavrit gibi yemlerin ıstakoz sepetiyle ve küçük koni biçimli küfelerle avlanır.Ayrıca trol ağlarıyla da yakalanmaktadırlar.Istakoz sepetleri,yarı silindir ya da dikdörtgen biçimindeki ağaçtan yapılmış sepetlerdir.Günümüzde bu sepetler plastik malzemeden örülür.Ağzında ıstakozun girmesi için bir açıklık bulunur.Istakoz sepete girince tünel biçiminde örülmüş bölümden dışarı çıkamaz.Sepetlerin uzunluğu 76-102 cm arasındadır.Sepetler deniz tabanına 15 lik diziler halinde yerleştirilir ve sepetlere bağlanmış şamandıralarla işaretlenir.

   

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