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İstanbulun Kapılarından Yedi 7 Kapısı Hangileridir

yedikule-kapisiİstanbulun Kapılarından Yedi 7 Kapısı Hangileridir 
İstanbul surlarında halkın girip çıktığı kapılarla, müstahkem bir şekilde askerî kapılar mevcuttu. Konstantin zamanında yapılmış surlar üzerindeki kapılarla sonradan daha ileriye yapılan Teodosyus surları üzerindeki kapılar aynı isimleri taşırlardı. Teodosyus surları önündeki geniş hendekleri geçmek üzere köprüler kuruluydu. Harb esnasında halkın geçmesine mahsus mülkî kapılar örülür ve önlerindeki köprüler yıkılırdı.İşte İstanbulun meşhur 7 kapısı
1-Yaldızlı kapı: Yaldızlı kapının önünden Ayasofyaya kadar uzanan caddeye Zafer Caddesi
2-Yedikule kapısı
3-Silivri kapısı
4-Mevlevihane kapısı
5-Topkapı
6-Sulukule kapısı
7-Edirnekapı

 

YILDIZLI KAPI:

Surların üzerindeki en büyük kapı üç kemerli bir takı zafer şeklindeki Yaldızlı kapıydı. Bizans İmparatorları zafer alaylarından dönüşlerinde ordularıyla beraber bu kapıdan şehre girerlerdi. Bu günkü Yedikule Kalesinin dış tarafına rastlayan Yaldızlı Kapının iki tarafında dört köşe mermerden büyük kuleler vardı. Kapı vaktiyle pek süslüydü. Kapıyı Hergül heykeliyle Prometenin işkencesini tasvir eden heykeller ve bir zaferi temsil eden bir kabartma tezyin ediyordu.
Halkın girip çıkamadığı Yaldızlı kapının önünden Ayasofyaya kadar uzanan caddeye Zafer Caddesi ismi verilmişti.

 

YEDİKULE KAPISI: PENTAPYRGI

Evvelce burası beş kulesi münasebetiyle beş kule kapısı diye anılırdı. Sonradan iki kule daha ilave edilmiş ve kapının ismi de Yedikule Kapısı` na çevrilmişti. İçinde cereyan eden vak` alar itibariyle Yedikule tarihimizde ehemmiyetli bir yer almıştır.

 

SİLİVRİ KAPISI: PEGANA

Yedikule kapısından sonra gelen kapıdır. Bu kapının güneyinde Antemyus kulesinin doğu yüzünde bir kitabe mevcuddur. Bu kitabede Allah tarafından muhafaza edilen bu mukaddes ayazma kapısı 1438 senesi mayısında mutteki İmparator Jan ve Mari Paleoloğlar mülkünün sadık hadimi Manuel Brien Leotiaris marifetile ve onun tarafından yapılmıştır yazılıdır..
Balıklı ayazmasının karşısında bulunması dolayısıyle Bizanslılar zamanında Silivrikapısının hususi bir ehemmiyeti vardı. Kapı bu devirde mühim tarihi vak` alara da sahne olmuştur. İmparator Mihail Paleologos` un generali Alexios Stategopulos 1261 yılında bu kapıyı zorlayarak şehre girmiş ve Latin İmparatorluğuna son vermişti. 1422 de II. Murad İstanbulu muhasara ettiği vakit çadırını bu kapının karşısında, Balıklı ayazması sahasında kurmuştu. Fatih` in muhasarasında bu kapı karşısınaüç top yerleştirmiş bulunuyordu. Silivrikapısı 1509 zelzelesinden müteessir olmuş ve II. Bayezid tarafından sûrların diğer kısımlarıyla beraber tamir ettirilmiş üstüne de bu tamiri bildiren bir kitabe konulmuştur.

 

MEVLEVİHANE KAPISI: MELANDISIA

Kapının üzerindeki yazılarda Allah ve Kırmızı Fırka tarafından muhafaza olunan İmparatorumuz Konstantin` e zaferler olsun ibareleri okunmaktadır. Kapıya Rus kapısı veya Kırmızı Fırka kapısı da derlerdi.
912 yılında Hıristiyan olmadıkları için Eyüb taraflarında oturtulan Rusların şehre girmek hakları olduğunu göstermek üzere resileri Ayioz bu kapıya kalkanını asmıştır.

 


TOPKAPI: AYİOS ROMANOS

Ahalinin girip çıktığı bu kapı civarındaki bir kilisenin ismine izafetle Ayios Romanos diye anılırdı. Kapının eski şekli, üstü kapalı beşik örtüsü kemerli ve mermer sökeliydi. Kapının üzerinde mermer konsollara insinad ettirilmiş bir de cumba bulunuyordu. Kapıların üstünde görünen bu cumbalar düşman hücumlarında yukarıdan ok, tüfek ve taş atmaya yarardı. Eskiden dışarı çıkarken kapının sağ tarafında bulunan yüksek burç da bir sarsıntı ile yıkılmış, tamir de edilmediğinden büsbütün ortadan kaldırılmıştır.
Topkapı ve Edirnekapıları fetihle alâkadar geçidlerdir. Fatihin ordusu bu iki kapı arasında mevkii almış bulunuyordu. Fatihin otağı da Topkapının karşısındaki tepede kurulmuştu. Son Bizans İmparatoru Konstantin XI. Topkapının iç taraflarında yapılan çarpışmalarda ölmüştür. Kapının Topkapı ismi ile anılması Türkler tarafından buraya konulan toplardan olduğu zannedilmektedir.
17. Asırda İstanbulda yaşamış olan Eremya Çelebi Topkapının o zamanki halini şöyle anlatmaktadır; Yirmiüçüncü kapı Topkapıdır. Buraya alâmet olarak toplar konulmuştur.Bu kapının ç ve dış taraflarında Ermeni çingeneler oturur. Erkekler elek yaparlar, kadınlar da bunları satmak için sokak sokak gezerler yüzleri açık olarak gezen bu hayasız kadınların erkeklerinden çoğu Müslüman olmuştur. Edirneye gidip gelen küfürbaz Ermeni Katırcılar burda oturur.

 

SULUKULE KAPISI: AYA KIRIAKY:

Avarların kapısı da denilmektedir. Avarlar vaktile şehre bu kapıdan girmişlerdi. Hâlâ örülü olan bu kapı bu vakitten beri bu giriş hatırasının ismini de taşımaktadır.

 

EDİRNE KAPISI: HARİS KAPISI

Bizans tarihi ile meşgul olan müeliflerin arasında bu kapının yeri münakaşalıdır. Doktor Mortman, Bizansın Harisius kapısının Porta Charicius` un şimdiği Edirnekapısı olduğunu tesbit etmiştir.

 

İstanbuldaki diğer kapılar
Bir zamanlar çevresi kara ve denizden surlarla çevrili olduğu için ”Eis-tin polia/iç şehir, şehrin içi” olarak adlandırılan İstanbul’a giriş ve çıkışların yapıldığı yaklaşık 60 kapının birçoğu, adını verdiği semt isimlerinde yaşıyor.
Bizans ve Osmanlı döneminde İstanbul’u çevreleyen ”Marmara”, ”Haliç” ve ”kara” surlarındaki kapılar, sabah saatlerinde açılır ve akşam kapatılırdı.

Kentte yıllarca hizmet veren tarihi kapıların birçoğu günümüze kadar ayakta kalamasa da bulunduğu bölgeye verdiği isimle yaşamaya devam ediyor.

Bizans ve Osmanlı döneminde açılan Marmara surları üzerindeki kapılar şöyle:
– Yedikule’de sahil yolu üzerindeki ”Mermerkule Kapısı”,
– Çevresindeki nar ağaçlarından adını alan ”Debbağ Kapı” da denilen ”Narlı Kapı”,
– Bizanslıların ”Porta Psamatia” dedikleri ”Samatya Kapısı”,
– ”Davutpaşa Kapısı”,
– Bizans döneminde ”Blanga veya Vlanga Kapısı”, Osmanlı döneminde önce ”Yeni Langa Kapısı” denilen ”Yenikapı”,
– Piri Reis’in ”Bab-ı Kum” adını verdiği, bir iskeleye ve kumluğa açılan ve günümüzde olduğu gibi 18. yüzyılda da ”şen meyhaneler”in yer aldığı ”Kumkapı”,
– Küçük Ayasofya Kilisesi’ne gidenlerin kullandığı, Osmanlı zamanında adı ”Kadırga Limanı Kapısı” olarak değiştirilen ”Sofia Kapısı”,
– Bizanslıların ”Porta Ferrata” ve ”Porta Marina” dedikleri, Osmanlı dönemindeki adı ”Çatladısu Kapısı” olan ”Çatladıkapı”. Osmanlı zamanında kapının adı 1532 yılında yaşanan depremde burçlarından birinin çatlaması üzerine ”Çatladıkapı” olarak değiştirildi. Kapının önünde Türk cündileri cirit oynar, halk da alanın çevresini hıncahınç doldurup müsabakaları izlermiş.
– Bizans Sarayına açılan ”Bukoleon Sarayı Kapısı”,
– Topkapı Sarayı’nın ahırlarına açılan ”Ahırkapı”. Burada ahırların bulunduğu kaynaklarda yer alsa da kimi İstanbullulara göre bu kapının adı ahir (son) kelimesinden geliyor.
– ”Balıkhane Kapısı”,
– Sepetçiler Köşkü’nün yanında olduğu varsayılan ”Hasırcılar Kapısı”. Kapının sur penceresinden sarayda boğdurulanların cesetleri denize atılırmış.
– ”Ayia Maria Hodegetria Kapısı”,
– Adını Bizans döneminin Mangana Sarayı’ndan alan ve artık kapalı bulunan ”Mangana Kapısı”,
– Adını Bizans’ın azizlerinden Ayios Yeoryios’ten alan ”Aya Yorgi Kapısı”,
– Osmanlı döneminde açılan ”Demirkapı”,
– Osmanlı döneminde büyük olasılıkla değirmene açılan ”Değirmen Kapısı”,
– Topkapı Sarayı’nı korumak için yerleştirilen toplardan adını alan ”Top Kapı”.

   

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