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Srinivasa Ramanujan Kimdir Matematiğe Katkıları Nelerdir

Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician) Matematikçi

Ramanucan, Srinivasa (d. 22 Aralık 1887, Erode – ö. 26 Nisan 1920, Kumbako-nam, Hindistan), sayılar kuramına birçok katkıda bulunan ve partisyon fonksiyonuna ilişkin önemli buluşları olan Hintli matema­tikçi.

Daha 15 yaşındayken G. S. Carr’ın iki ciltlik Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics (1880-86; Soyut ve Uygulamalı Matematikte Temel Bilgiler Özeti) adlı yapıtını okuması, Rama-nucan’ın yaşamında bir dönüm noktası ol­du. Matematiğin 1860’lara değin gelişimini içeren bu kitaptaki 6 bini aşkın teoremin tümünü kanıtlayan Ramanucan yeni teo­remler ve yöntemler geliştirdi. 1903’te Mad-ras Üniversitesi’nden burs kazandı, ama matematikten başka hiçbir konuyla ilgilen­mediğinden başarısız oldu ve bursu ertesi yıl kesildi.

Ramanucan’m ilk makalesi Journal of the lndian Mathematical Society’dc (Hindistan Matematik Derneği Dergisi) 1911’de yayım­landı. Aynı dergide üç yıl içinde 11 makalesi daha yayımlanan Ramanucan, 1913’te ünlü İngiliz matematikçi Godfrey H. Hardy ile yazışmaya başladı. Olağanüstü yeteneğin­den etkilenen Hardy’nin çağrısı üzerine, Cambridge Üniversitesi’ne bağlı Trinity College bursuyla 1914’te İngiltere’ye giden Ramanucan, Hardy’den özel ders aldı. ayrı­ca Hardy ile birlikte birçok makale yazdı.

Ramanucan’m hemen tümüyle kendi ken­dine çalışarak kazandığı matematik bilgisi şaşılacak düzeydeydi. Kendinden önceki katkılardan tümüyle habersiz olmasına kar­şın, sürekli kesirler konusundaki bilgi ve ustalığı, Hardy’nin deyimiyle, dünyadaki tüm matematikçileri aşacak düzeydeydi. Riemann serilerini, eliptik integralleri, hi-pergeometrik serileri ve zeta fonksiyonuna ilişkin eşitlikleri kendi.başına geliştirmiş, ıraksak serilere ilişkin özgün bir kuram ortaya koymuştu. Buna karşılık, düzenli bir matematik eğitimi görmemiş olmasından kaynaklanan temel bilgi eksiklikleri de şaşı­lacak düzeydeydi. Örneğin ikikatlı dönemli fonksiyonlar, ikilenik biçimlerin klasik ku­ramı ya da Cauchy teoreminden tümüyle habersizdi; matematiksel bir kanıtın nitelik ve koşullarına ilişkin bilgisi ise çok yetersiz­di. Bu nedenle, asal sayılar kuramına ilişkin teoremlerinin büyük bölümü, çok parlak görüşler içermelerine karşın, tümüyle yanlıştı.

İngiltere’de önemli çalışmalar gerçekleşti­ren Ramanucan’m özellikle sayıların partis­yonu konuşunda önemli buluşları vardır. Makaleleri İngiliz ve kıta Avrupa’sı dergile­rinde yayımlandı. Royal Society üyeliğine seçilen ilk Hintli bilim adamı oldu (1918).

1917’de vereme yakalanan Ramanucan. hastalığının ağırlaşması üzerine 1919’da ül­kesine döndü. Geniş kitlelerce tanınmayan, ama matematikçilerin Leonhard Euler (1707-83) ve Kari Jacobi’den (1804-51) bu yana benzeri görülmemiş olağanüstü bir deha olarak kabul ettikleri Ramanucan öldüğünde henüz 33 yaşındaydı.

   

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